Shrimp Diseases

5 Ways to Prevent Vannamei Shrimp Diseases

Kalyca Krisandini
Kalyca Krisandini
26 October 2023
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Tips for dealing with one of the biggest obstacles in shrimp farming

Indonesia is now experiencing rapid growth in vannamei shrimp farming. This is due to the market's high demand for vannamei shrimp. However, this rapid development is accompanied by a number of issues, one of which is disease.

Fungi, bacteria, viruses, and parasites are the most common causes of disease in shrimp. This is one of the toughest obstacles in cultivation. The impact has the potential to endanger the survival of shrimp in ponds. If left untreated, shrimp disease attacks would result in early death, which will undoubtedly be detrimental to farmers.

Ways to Prevent Vannamei Shrimp Diseases

Disease-free cultivation is every farmer's dream. To actualize it, farmers can take several preventative and remedial measures. Here are some ways for preventing and treating vannamei shrimp disease:

Using SPF shrimp broodstock

One of the preparatory steps before beginning cultivation is selecting stock from the hatchery. Farmers must use high-quality stock that have a Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) certification. SPF shrimp stock reduces the risk of disease attack on shrimp, allowing them to grow healthily.

Biosecurity

Biosecurity is the effort to control inputs and prevent pathogens from entering the cultivation area. There are various forms of biosecurity used in cultivation activities. One of them is using facilities like Crab Protecting Walls and Bird Scaring Devices to keep disease-carrying animals out of the pond area. Other than that, biosecurity activities also include proper sanitation and pond water treatment.

Probiotic administration

Another measure that can be done to treat shrimp disease is to give them probiotics. Bacillus and Lactobacillus are common probiotics administered to shrimp. Both will compete with pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio. Probiotics, according to Gunarto et al. (2016), improve water quality and supplement feed sources.

Immunostimulants administration

Immunostimulants such as vitamin C and beta glucan can be used to boost shrimp immunity. A strong immune system will protect shrimp from disease infection.

The Use of Quorum Sensing Control

Quorum sensing is a method of communication between Vibrio bacteria and other bacterial cells. This communication will be limited by quorum sensing control so that toxic substances do not attack the host. As a result, there will be no threat when these bacteria gather.

The five ways for preventing vannamei shrimp disease have been discussed above. What if the shrimp showed signs of disease infection? Bring the sample to the laboratory immediately. Examining or identifying diseases that infect shrimp using advanced technology such as real-time PCR will provide an accurate diagnosis. A regular checking on shrimp and water samples can also be preventive measures to deal with diseases.

Reference

Gunarto, G., Mansyur, A., and Muliani. 2016. Aplikasi Dosis Fermentasi Probiotik Berbeda pada Budidaya Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei) Pola Intensif. Jurnal Riset Akuakultur. 4(2):241-255.

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