Shrimp Diseases

Ways to Overcome Vannamei Shrimp Disease: White Feces Disease (WFD)

Tito Adam Lukmantoro
Tito Adam Lukmantoro
26 October 2023
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Get to know, prevent, and overcome one of the diseases that often infect shrimps in ponds

There are several ways to overcome vannamei shrimp disease, specifically White Feces Disease (WFD). This disease is caused by the Vibrio sp. bacteria , and has become a major issue for shrimp farmers. Farmers may suffer huge losses due to decreased production if the disease is not handled quickly and effectively. Therefore, farmers must understand how to identify this disease and implement proper prevention and treatment measures.

Causes and Symptoms of WFD Disease

Inadequate cultivation treatment, unhealthy shrimp seeds, and poor water quality may cause disease microorganisms such as Vibrio sp. This bacterium is the initial cause of WFD disease. The signs of WFD disease can also be seen in the conditions of the cultivation environment. With the dominance of BGA plankton, the color of the pond water shifts to darkness. The organic substance concentration of pond water is likewise high, at more than 250 ppm. In addition, pond water is also dominated by Vibrio sp. with 12% of the total bacteria. However, depending on the existing water quality buffers, these values is likely to be relative.

Clinical symptoms of WFD disease in shrimp include the appearance of white fecal strings floating on the surface of the pond. This symptom is followed by a decrease in shrimp appetite and a shift in the color of the digestive tract to white.

Ways to Prevent Vannamei Shrimp Disease: WFD

After understanding the causes, symptoms, and impacts of WFD disease, prevention needs to be done. There are eight ways to prevent WFD disease that can be done:

  1. Use high-quality, SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) seeds.
  2. Implement biosecurity in ponds to minimize the occurrence of disease transmission or spread.
  3. Maintain the color stability of the water by managing the plankton stability in the pond. Spreading natural carbon sources (molasses) and lime can help stabilize plankton in the pond.
  4. Perform a siphon on a regular basis to lower the amount of organic substances at the bottom of the pond.
  5. Change the water in the pond on a regular basis. Drain the pool water as much as 5% then refill with water from the reservoir plot, which is free from virus and bacteria pathogens.
  6. Spreading Lactobacillus sp. probiotics in the pond to reduce the quantity of Vibrio sp. in the pond.
  7. Maintain proper, but not excessive, feed management. If it’s too excessive, the cultivation environment may become unstable.
  8. Check the pond water quality on a regular basis.

Ways to Overcome Vannamei Shrimp Disease: WFD

Farmers can utilize phytogenic herbs, such as galangal or garlic, as a natural antibiotic if white vannamei shrimps are infected with WFD. Shrimps need to be fasted first so that their hunger and appetite increase. After that, mix the feed with flour or garlic powder. When the shrimps’ appetite has returned to normal, the garlic application can be discontinued. Then, increase the dose of probiotics to suppress the amount of Vibrio sp. in the pond. Furthermore, there are several things that are no less important in the shrimp farming process, including:

  1. Arrange cultivation SOPs.
  2. Implement biosecurity measures.
  3. Routinely disinfect cultivation equipment after each usage.
  4. Minimize entry and exit access for people who aren’t interested.
  5. Determine a routine schedule for disease detection in shrimps.
  6. Check water quality from biological, physical, and chemical parameters.
  7. Use high-quality shrimp seeds and feed.
  8. Join the cultivation community.
  9. Keeping up with the development of science and technology of shrimp farming.
  10. Always maintain an optimistic attitude in every cultivation cycle.


Marbun, J., Harpeni, E., dan Wardyanto, W. 2019. Penanganan penyakit white feces pada udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei menggunakan aplikasi pakan yang dicampur ekstrak lengkuas merah Alpinia purpurata k. schum. Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan, Pesisir dan Perikanan. p-ISSN: 2089-7790, e-ISSN: 2502-6194

Nur’aini, Y.L., Fatmawati., Hanggono, B., dan Faries, A. 2019. PENANGGULANGAN PENYAKIT BERAK PUTIH PADA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamei). Jurnal Perekayasaan Budidaya Air Payau dan Laut Balai Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau Situbondo.

About the Author

The author is from Sidoarjo, East Java. The first child of three siblings. Bachelor of Aquaculture from Airlangga University. Currently working at Jala Tech as a Technical Sales.

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