Shrimp holds immense potential to be Indonesia’s leading commodity in the aquaculture sector. One of the islands in Indonesia promising enough to emerge as a hub for the shrimp industry is Sulawesi. This island, comprising six provinces, has a coastline of 6,000 kilometers and is bordered by four seas: the Flores Sea to the north, the Sulawesi Sea to the south, the Makassar Strait to the west, and the Banda Sea to the east.
Based on data from the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KKP) in 2021, Sulawesi recorded an aquaculture production volume of over 5,801 tons. From this number, South Sulawesi accounted for the highest production of 4,082 tons, followed by Central Sulawesi with 731.528 tons. On the other hand, Gorontalo province had the smallest production during that period at 49.377 tons.
As Sulawesi is surrounded by seas and thus holds strong potential for brackish water aquaculture, the island has vast land potential for shrimp cultivation. The latest data from BPS (2016) reveals that the Sulawesi island has a shrimp pond area of 151,904 hectares, with the largest area located in South Sulawesi. As reported by Pelakita.id, there are 120,738 hectares in South Sulawesi used for aquaculture, particularly shrimp cultivation. However, the figures from other provinces are considerably lower compared to South Sulawesi, with only 24,370 hectares in Southeast Sulawesi and 8,290 hectares in Central Sulawesi.
Furthermore, Sulawesi is also home to numerous ports. Media Indonesia notes the presence of 13 ports in Sulawesi, with the Soekarno-Hatta Port in Makassar being the largest, with the highest amount of passengers and cargo traffic This port is also classified as a major port by the Indonesian government. Shrimp is also on the top five list of exported commodities.
According to Nurmiati et al. (2022), the supply chain of vannamei shrimp in Sulawesi can be categorized into three journeys in reaching consumers: directly from farmers to retailers, from collectors to processing companies, or from collectors to retailers.
However, there are still issues regarding the supply chain, particularly the high distribution costs. This is due to the lack of optimal logistics infrastructure to support intensive shrimp distribution. Therefore, an integrated shrimp supply chain management system is essential, which includes production activities (hatchery and cultivation), marketing, post-harvest handling (storage), and transportation.
Yusuf et al. (2020) noted that shrimp farmers in Sulawesi still struggle to access high-quality shrimp fry due to many hatcheries not implementing proper biosecurity measures and prioritizing quantity over quality. Poor-quality fry increases the likelihood of shrimp diseases. Moreover, issues with irrigation channels affecting water quality in ponds are also common. Feed is often sourced from outside Sulawesi, leading to increased costs.
Industrialization and digitalization, even at the farmer level, are crucial for unlocking Sulawesi's potential as Indonesia's shrimp industry hub. Currently, many shrimp ponds in Sulawesi still operate at a traditional level. Shrimp productivity in provinces other than South Sulawesi also needs optimization to be key industry hubs. The application of modern technology is required in order to help with disease prevention and productivity improvement.
Citing from Kata Data, TB Haeru Rahayu, the Director General of Aquaculture at the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KKP), stated that the current strategy for Sulawesi involves revitalizing traditional shrimp ponds into semi-intensive ones. This revitalization plans to cover 22,500 hectares of land in North Gorontalo, Donggala, Wajo, Pinrang, Takalar, Kolaka, North Kolaka, and Polewali Mandar. Additionally, KKP is implementing a modern shrimp pond modeling strategy for 6,000 hectares of land in Sulawesi with a comprehensive upstream and downstream management system, aiming to reduce production costs and enhance productivity through technological application.
The challenge of establishing Sulawesi as Indonesia's industry hub involves every aspect of shrimp cultivation, from shrimp fry supply to harvesting and distribution. With a sufficient supply chain, land, and ports, it requires full support and involvement from the government, shrimp farmers, and all stakeholders in the shrimp industry to reach more productive and sustainable shrimp cultivation which contributes more to the country's economy.
Nurmiati, et al. "Analisis Rantai Pasok Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus Vannamei) Di Kabupaten Konawe Selatan." Jurnal Sosio Agribisnis, vol. 7, no. 1, 2022, https://doi.org/10.33772/jsa.v7i1.27289.
Yusuf, R., et al. “Rantai Pasok Dan Sistem Logistik Udang Vanamei Di Kabupaten Pinrang, Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan.” Buletin Ilmiah Marina Sosial Ekonomi Kelautan Dan Perikanan, 6(1) p-ISSN: 2502-0803 e-ISSN: 2541-2930, 2020
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