The FCR of vannamei shrimp refers to Feed Conversion Ratio which is one of the indicators of feed management efficiency aside from feeding time, frequency, pattern, and feed quality. A low FCR value suggests that the feed is of good quality and that the feeding management is proper. Meanwhile, the range of FCR values considered ideal by farmers is between 1.1 and 1.2. Optimal FCR will positively impact shrimp growth rate and health, cleanliness of pond bottom, stability of water quality, and production cost savings.
The FCR value of vannamei shrimp is obtained by dividing the amount of feed given during the cultivation period (in kg) by the shrimp biomass (in kg).
For example, the amount of feed given during cultivation in a pond reaches 1,100 kg, while the shrimp biomass is 1,000 kg. Divide 1,100 by 1,000 to find the FCR value
This division will result in 1.1, which is the FCR value of the farm.
A high FCR value is often associated with various issues, including slow growth rate, low shrimp weight, and stressed shrimp. The causes of high FCR value are varied, from high water temperature, overfeeding, excessive feeding frequency, high water flows, and inadequate aeration.
To avoid issues due to the high FCR value above, farmers need to keep the FCR at its optimal range. The following are some tips that can be implemented:
As mentioned in the beginning, feed quality influences the FCR value. For this reason, farmers must be selective in choosing feed to give to shrimp. Before choosing a feed, compare one feed brand with another. Choose one that has necessary ingredients and is able to meet the shrimp's nutritional needs. When giving feed, ensure that it is in good physical condition. It should be dry, and should not be moldy, floating, dusty, and uneven in size.
Feeding tray is a tool to help farmers monitor the amount of feed consumed by shrimp. Farmers can use a feeding tray to determine whether they should feed their shrimp more or less. Feeding trays help farmers in preventing overfeeding or underfeeding as a measure to maintain FCR values.
The paddle wheel serves to ensure the availability of oxygen, especially in farms with high stocking densities. This tool can generate strong splashes of water. Air bubbles in the water will emerge and the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration will increase. Sufficient DO will maintain the shrimp's appetite, ensuring that they consume all the feed given. This way, the FCR value will be kept in control. However, make sure to install paddle wheels in the appropriate spots and pay attention to its strength so that the water flow is not too excessive.
Feed that is given by spreading it carelessly may lead to buildup. Apart from having a negative impact on water quality, the buildup of feed in ponds may result in feed waste since it is not consumed by the shrimp. It is best to feed by going around the pond to ensure it spreads evenly. When feeding, the paddle wheel (if any) can be turned off temporarily to prevent the water flow from getting excessively high.
Apart from the feeding method, the feeding time must also be appropriate. For example, when shrimp reach the Day of Culture (DoC) of 30 days and over, feed can be given five times a day, namely at 08.00 AM, 12.00 PM, 04.00 PM, 08.00 PM and 00.00 AM. Give enough intervals between feedings to ensure that the shrimp digest the feed properly.
In addition to the four tips mentioned above, evaluating feeding management is another crucial point. Make sure feed is given at the right time and frequency, and is adjusted to the stocking density. Then, start recording daily feeding in the cultivation management application, namely JALA App.
Farmers can record the amount and time of feeding in each pond using JALA App. Farmers can also see the estimation, target, and actual FCR value in an easily comprehended visual chart. From the chart, farmers can make better decisions to improve their cultivation performance to be productive and sustainable.
Optimal FCR of vannamei shrimp can make cultivation more efficient. Shrimp can grow optimally with a fast growth rate and weight that meets the target. Not much feed is wasted, which helps to maintain the quality of the water. To keep the FCR value at optimal range, farmers can be more selective in choosing feed, monitor feeding through feeding trays regularly, enhance aeration with paddle wheels, implement proper feeding methods, and record feeding daily.
ASEAN Good Shrimp Farm Management Practice. Fisheries Publication Series of ASEAN Cooperation in Food, Agriculture and Forestry. https://asean.org/wp-content/uploads/images/archive/agr_pub/fi1.doc Limsuwan, C. 2010. How to Prevent High Feed Conversion Ratio in Shrimp Farming. Kasetsart University Fisheries Research Bulletin. 34 (1): 28-35. Nonot Tri Waluyo : Berbagai Cara Menekan FCR | Trobos Aqua
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