Shrimp Industry

What is a Vannamei Shrimp Hatchery? Get to Know Its Role for the Shrimp Business!

Wildan Gayuh Zulfikar
Wildan Gayuh Zulfikar
2 April 2024
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Vannamei shrimp hatchery is one of the crucial keys in the shrimp industry. According to data from, Indonesia recorded the production of 943 thousand tons of cultivated shrimp in 2021. We need at least 56.5 billion shrimp fry annually if the average shrimp harvested were 20 grams per head and the survival rate (SR) reached 80%.

The need for shrimp fry is much greater when referring to the production target of 2 million tons in 2024. Therefore, the hatchery business can be said to be quite promising, considering the great need and the potential for needs to continue to increase.

What exactly is a shrimp hatchery? What are the key components of hatchery operations, and how are shrimp fry produced? Read the discussion below.

What Is A Shrimp Hatchery?

A shrimp hatchery is a business that hatches shrimp fry. The basic foundation of hatcheries is consistent production of high-quality shrimp fry and a location close to shrimp farming centers.

Modern and high-standard nurseries are required to produce high-quality seeds to fulfill cultivation needs. Shrimp fry that perform well when cultivated or have a high SR will contribute to the smooth running of cultivation.

Hatcheries need to maintain the quality of their shrimp fry because the competition in the market is getting tougher. Therefore, each hatchery must be certified to guarantee the quality standards of the shrimp fry produced by obtaining good management of fish hatchery (CPIB).

How Are Shrimp Fry Produced in A Hatchery?

The shrimp fry production process begins with preparing the shrimp broodstock until the eggs hatch and grow into post-larvae (PL). Here are the details of the shrimp fry production process in a hatchery:

Broodstock preparation

Broodstock shrimp can be caught in nature or from domesticated shrimp. Broodstock that are ready to lay eggs are usually 1 year old and weigh >40 grams. They can lay eggs reaching 100,000-250,000 eggs in one clutch.

Female shrimp begin their reproductive cycle when they are 8-10 months old, meaning that they will lay the maximum and regular amount of eggs at that time.

Fertilization of female shrimp by male shrimp

The prospective shrimp broodstock will usually release pheromones, and these pheromones will stimulate male shrimp. Once stimulated, the male shrimp will fertilize the female shrimp.

Eggs hatch

After the female shrimp is fertilized by the male shrimp and lays eggs, the eggs will hatch after 12-18 hours. Unfortunately, not all eggs can hatch. In the hatchery, it takes 26-31 days for the eggs to grow into shrimp fry.

Development of shrimp fry

Eggs that hatch grow into nauplii for 2 days, then zoea for 4-5 days, and then mysis for 3-4 days. Mysis then grows into post-larvae (PL) or commonly known as shrimp fry for 10-15 days. These are the shrimp fry that will be stocked in ponds.

Tahap Perkembangan Udang.png Vannamei Shrimp Life Cycle (Suwignyo, 1990 in Amiruddin, 2016)

The average survival to post-larvae is around 40%. Hatcheries that produce shrimp fry with high SR typically produce fry with great performance in cultivation.

What Are the Key Components of Hatchery Operations?

To produce high-quality shrimp fry, hatcheries need to implement an appropriate operational system. Therefore, there are several key components that must be considered, including:

Biosecurity implementation

Maintaining biosecurity is the main focus in the operation of hatcheries. Hatcheries carry out strict procedures to produce disease-free shrimp fry. All of the processes at the hatchery require strict biosecurity implementation to prevent pathogen contamination.

Supportive location

Hatcheries also require a supportive location due to the need for water supply that is clean and free from industrial contamination. The production process in the hatchery will be hindered if its location is polluted by high concentrations of organic materials or industrial waste.

High-quality broodstock

High-quality broodstock is also essential for hatcheries. To produce high-quality shrimp fry, broodstock with superior genes are needed. Broodstock that are free from disease infection are the most crucial one. If the broodstock is infected with a disease, the disease could be transmitted to the shrimp fry.

High-quality feed for broodstock

In addition, shrimp broodstock also need high-quality feed so that they always have energy and nutrients when they begin the spawning cycle. Fresh squids, clams, and blood worms (polychaeta) are high-quality feeds that must be provided for shrimp broodstock.

Things that Need to be Addressed by Farmers before Ordering Shrimp Fry to A Hatchery

There are a lot of household-scale hatcheries nowadays. It should be noted that not all household hatcheries guarantee disease-free shrimp fry. Therefore, farmers must be careful since shrimp fry is one of the most crucial keys to successful cultivation. Here are two things that farmers need to address:

Make sure the shrimp fry are disease-free and meet the qualified standards

According to farmers, high-quality shrimp fry are disease-free. There are, however, a lot of other determining aspects. Some of them are uniform physical size, active, stimuli-responsive, and so on.

Make sure the hatchery includes a disease-free certificate

When ordering shrimp fry, make sure the hatchery will include a disease-free certificate from laboratory test results. Several hatchery companies usually attach a shrimp fry certificate from the QA Lab of the hatchery which guarantees that the fry are free from disease infection or categorized as SPF (specific pathogen-free).

Furthermore, this disease-free certificate can be said to be mandatory. Therefore, farmers can rest assured that the fry do not carry the potential of disease. Even though their cultivation is not necessarily free from infection during the process, farmers must still implement strict biosecurity.


A shrimp hatchery is a place where shrimp fry are hatched, and it has a crucial role in the shrimp industry. Hatcheries support the availability of high-quality shrimp fry for cultivation. To guarantee a high-quality shrimp fry production, hatcheries require certification, namely CPIB.

There are 4 key components in the operation of a vannamei shrimp hatchery, including:

  • Biosecurity implementation
  • Supportive location
  • High-quality broodstock
  • High-quality feed for broodstock

Farmers also need to address these 2 things before ordering fry to a hatchery:

  • Make sure the shrimp fry are disease-free and meet the qualified standards
  • Make sure the hatchery includes a disease-free certificate

The development of shrimp fry from hatcheries to farms need to be supported by appropriate operation management. In light of that, JALA App is #HeretoHelp you record, monitor, and understand the condition of your shrimp and ponds in a practical way.

Discover more benefits by signing up for JALA App! Access via website or download the app on Google Play Store or App Store.


Amiruddin, A. (2016). Optimasi Salinitas yang Berbeda pada Larva Udang Vannamei (Litopenaeus Vannamei) Stadia Pl 1 sampai 10 pada Wadah yang Terkontrol (skripsi). Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar, Makassar. Retrieved 2024, from

Dugassa, H. And D. G. Gaetan. 2018. Biology of White Leg Shrimp, Penaeus vannamei: Review. World Journal of Fish and Marine Species. 10 (2): 5-17.

FAO. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme Penaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Key pointers for a successful shrimp hatchery | The Fish Site

Peran Sentral Hatchery Udang, Inti Akua | Trobos

Prospek Cerah Industri Hatchery Udang | INFOMINA

Tanpa Benur Tak Ada Udang, Tajuk |

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