Nanobubbles are one of the new technological systems in aquaculture. They are gas bubbles with a size of <200nm in liquid form which tends to slowly sink freely in water, enhancing the movement of water molecules. By utilizing dissolved oxygen (DO) in water, nanobubbles can optimize the oxygen levels to remain stable for an extended period. The oxygen in nanobubbles captures suspended particles or pollutants in the liquid and carries them to the surface. Nanobubbles are typically used to break down harmful substances in water, circulate gases in aquatic environments, and apply ultrasonic waves.
Nanobubble technology can increase DO levels up to four times than using a regular aerator. In addition to increasing DO levels, nanobubbles can also enhance phytoplankton abundance. Higher DO levels can increase phytoplankton diversity, leading to improved water quality. Research suggests that abundant phytoplankton primarily comes from the Chrysophyta group, which is a pioneer in improving water quality.
The combination of nanobubbles with particle coagulation is believed to be effective in eliminating water pollution, including reducing the levels of total nitrogen, total dissolved solids (TDS), ammonia, and phosphate. They can also help regulate water temperature. The characteristics of nanobubbles allow them to enter solid materials through their small bubbles, enabling the breakdown of organic matter in aquaculture water.
Aquatic environments using nanobubble technology have significantly improved water quality parameters, which help in suppressing viruses and bacteria found in shrimp hepatopancreas. This is because dissolved oxygen in the water can last longer and is beneficial in the biological processes of shrimp and the breakdown of harmful substances in the water. The more and longer-lasting the bubbles generated by nanobubble technology, the longer the dissolved oxygen in the water will last, leading to more stable water quality. One bacterium that can be prevented through nanobubble technology is Vibrio sp.
Nanobubble technology is typically used in closed-system transportation processes. Transporting fish or shrimp usually requires aeration systems to fulfill dissolved oxygen needs during transit. The main issue is that dissolved oxygen requirements decrease due to the accumulation of metabolic waste and ammonia.
The use of nanobubble technology ensures that dissolved oxygen levels last longer compared to regular aerators. In closed-system transportation, factors such as seed density and travel duration also affect dissolved oxygen requirements. Therefore, one effort to meet dissolved oxygen requirements is by utilizing nanobubble technology.
Nanobubbles play a crucial role in aquaculture processes, from pre-harvest to post-harvest. The abundant benefits of this technology can be applied by farmers to enhance aquaculture processes effectively and efficiently.
Resources: Fuadi, Anwar, Muhammad S., Usman. (2020). Teknologi Tepat Guna Budidaya Ikan Lele dalam Kolam Terpal Metode Bioflok Dilengkapi dengan Aerasi Nano Bubble Oksigen. Jurnal Vokasi. Vol. 4 No. 1 (39-45). Mahasri, Gunanti, Laksmi S., Sudarno, Prayogo, Galang D. P., dan Ade I. H., (2019). Nanobubble Aquaculture System : Its Effect Towards Immune Response and Infection of Vibrio sp. in Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaus vannamei). Indian Veterinary Journal. Volume 96 (05) : 21-23. Mauladani, Syifa, Asri I. R., Muhammad F. A., Arief H., Rizki N. S., Aprian F. P., Agus D., Ahmad S., Hardi J., Dedi C., Henry K. H. S., Wendy T. P., Ujang K. A. K., Alfian N., dan Nurul T. R., (2020). Studi Kelayakan Ekonomi Budidaya Udang Litopenaeus vannamei : Investasi Nanobubble dalam Meningkatkan Produktivitas Hasil Panen. Jurnal Akuakuktur Indonesia. Volume 19 (1): 30-38. Susanti, Lily, Suyoto W. U., Noverina D. T., (2020). Dissolved Oxygen, Temperature, and Total Ammonia Nitrogen Management of Penaeus vannamei Postlarvae 10 Hatchery Using Nanobubble Technology. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fisheries and Aquaculture. Volume 6 Issue 1 : 21-28. Takarina, Noverita Dian, Suyud W. U., Lily S., Nurul T. R., Dedi C., Hardi J., Henry K. H. S., Rizki N. S. (2020). Phytoplankton Biodiversity Trends in Nanobubble Aerated Shrimp Farming at Probolinggo Coast, East Java. Jurnal Biodiversitas. Volume 21 Nomor 12. Pages : 5906-5914. Zaidy, Azam Bachur, Agung D. A., dan Adang K. (2021). Pengaruh Penggunaan Nanobubble dalam Transportasi Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus Vannamei). Jurnal Akuatika Indonesia. Vol 2 Nomor 2. Hal 50-56.The author is an alumnus of Diponegoro University from the Aquatic Resources Management Study Program.
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