One of the factors threatening the vannamei shrimp farming is early mortality. This issue disrupts the level of cultivation productivity. Farmers could face big failures and losses if this situation continues.
Several reasons caused this phenomenon to happen. These factors will be discussed in better details below.
The random selection of stock will have a domino effect that affects cultivation's sustainability. Stocks that are chosen at random and are not guaranteed to be of high quality will be susceptible to disease. Avoid using stocks from broodstock shrimp cultivation. It is better to use stocks from a trusted hatchery.
Shrimps might die early if they are not cared for properly. Farmers must therefore ensure the quality before stocking them, one way being to ensure that the stock are Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) certified. This certification ensures that the stocks do not contain bacteria or viruses that cause shrimp disease. The officially registered hatcheries usually guarantee that the stocks sold to the farmers have gone through disease checking.
Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) is one of the major causes of shrimp death. Early mortality syndrome, also known as Early Mortality Syndrome, is the technical form for AHPND. AHPND is caused by Vibrio bacteria and typically occurs during the early stages of cultivation (DOC <30), when the infection rate is severe. As a result, its presence should be observed.
Poor water quality is commonly caused by inconsistent and unpredictable weather. Water quality is also influenced by the location of the pond. These conditions will cause changes in the characteristics of water quality parameters, for example pH, which is quite impactful. Changes in water conditions that are not properly controlled will degrade the quality of the water. If the water quality is poor, the shrimp cannot grow properly, increasing the risk of death.
Shrimp health is influenced by the growth medium, in this case ponds. Poorly maintained surroundings around the pond pose an indirect risk of making the shrimp prone to stress and infection. Unattended environment will cause the source water to be not optimal for the cultivation, for example low alkalinity, high organic materials, and high population of Vibrio. If this situation is not addressed, shrimp might die early.
Early death is one of the most serious challenges in cultivation. Therefore, a number of measures are required to anticipate it. These measures include selecting high-quality stock, preventing disease, constantly monitoring water quality, and maintaining environmental conditions near ponds, among other things. If these measures are properly carried out, the probability of early death of vaname shrimp can be lowered.
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