Cultivation Tips

4 Types of Shrimp Farms: From Traditional to Supra Intensive

Kalyca Krisandini
Kalyca Krisandini
26 October 2023
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Shrimp farms or ponds are an important factor in cultivation because they serve as a habitat for cultivated shrimp, either vannamei shrimp, tiger shrimp, jerbung shrimp, or other types of shrimp. In some places, farms are also used to cultivate freshwater shrimp.

Shrimp farms are typically found near the coast, where cultivation needs, such as water source, can be met more easily. However, it is not uncommon for ponds to be located in residential areas, as long as they are close to a water source and have well-constructed waste management.

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Besides the location, the type of farm also affects the cultivation process and the harvest outcomes. What kind of shrimp farms do farmers often use, then? Read the explanation below.

4 Types of Shrimp Farms for Cultivation

Shrimp farms come in four types, despite that sometimes they appear to look the same at first glance. These types are differentiated not only based on shrimp stocking density, but also feed program, the use of technological tools such as paddle wheels and auto feeder, and treatment application such as probiotics. Here's the explanation:

1. Traditional Shrimp Farm

Traditional shrimp farms or also known as extensive farms are farms with a low stocking density, namely <50 PL/m² with a pond area in one plot of around 3-10 ha/plot. Compared to the other three types, its management tends to be simpler due to its low stocking density. The costs incurred for running this type of farm are also relatively lower.

Farmers who cultivate in these farms usually rely on natural feed sources such as plankton. This type of farm also benefits from the tidal conditions of sea water. This farm also has a low chance of disease outbreaks.

2. Semi-Intensive Shrimp Farm

Semi-intensive shrimp farms are farms with a stocking density of <100 PL/m² with a pond area in one plot of 1-3 ha/plot. Since the stocking density is one level higher, the management in this farm is more complex than traditional shrimp farms.

This type of farm uses a wheel to maintain the supply of dissolved oxygen. The pond plots are equipped with inlet and outlet channels for water circulation. In addition, this farm also relies on artificial feed to meet the nutritional needs of shrimp.

3. Intensive Shrimp Farm

Intensive farms are farms with a high stocking density, namely around >100 PL/m² with a pond area in one plot of 0.2-0.5 ha/plot. To allow enough room for the shrimp to move around, this kind of pond is typically deeper than one meter.

For its management, farmers must pay more attention to pest and disease control, feed availability, and waste management. The higher the stocking density, the shrimp will usually be more susceptible to disease, require more nutrients to grow, and the more waste produced will be.

4. Supra-Intensive Shrimp Farm

Supra-intensive shrimp farms are farms with the highest stocking density, usually >200 PL/m² with depths that can exceed 2 meters. Compared to the other three types, this type of farm requires the most complex management, which also comes at a larger expense. For instance, the mortality rate of the shrimp fry may be relatively higher because the shrimp population in the pond is also high.

This type of farm obviously requires more needs. You may need 8 paddle wheels in one pond to ensure the supply of dissolved oxygen. In addition, since there is more waste that will be discharged, you will need to use a proper wastewater treatment plant to prevent environmental pollution from the farm.

Which Type of Shrimp Farm is Right for You?

It goes without saying that every farmer wants their shrimp farm to be productive and profitable. The kind of farm you select is one determining aspect. Therefore, before selecting the type of shrimp farm, consider the factors below.

Production goals

Adapt shrimp farm to your desired production goals. If the focus is on massive production, intensive or supra intensive shrimp farms are more suitable. Meanwhile, if the distribution goal is local or small-scale markets, traditional or semi-intensive farms are a more realistic choice to suit the more limited resources.

Financial capacity

The choice of farm type also needs to be adjusted to financial capacity and capital availability. In comparison to traditional and semi intensive farms, intensive and supra intensive farms undoubtedly have higher operational costs. In addition, the higher the stocking density of the farm, the more costs incurred for manpower at the farm.

Management skill and cultivation knowledge

Farms with high stocking densities require greater attention. Therefore, effective management skills are required to handle it. Cultivation knowledge is also particularly important given the many aspects that must be maintained in farms with high stocking densities, such as artificial feed and dissolved oxygen supply.

Conclusion

Shrimp farms are classified into four types based on stocking density, namely

  • Traditional shrimp farm
  • Semi-intensive shrimp farm
  • Intensive shrimp farm
  • Supra-intensive shrimp farm

Whatever type of shrimp farm you run, one of the most important things is managing the cultivation itself. You can use JALA App, a shrimp farming management app that is #HeretoHelp your cultivation journey. Record more than 40 cultivation parameters and monitor your shrimp farm condition from anywhere and at any time, all in your hand.

Let's cultivate in a more productive and efficient way with JALA App! Access it at app.jala.tech or download the app on Google App or App Store.

References Ansori, A. (2015). Analisis Kelayakan Tambak Udang Windu (Penaeus monodon) Ekstensif di Desa Purworejo Kecamatan Pasir Sakti Kabupaten Lampung Timur (undergraduate thesis). University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung. Retrieved 2024, from https://digilib.unila.ac.id/8230/15/BAB%20II.pdf

Farionita, I. M., Aji, J. M., & Supriono, A. (2018). Analisis Komparatif Usaha Budidaya Udang Vaname Tambak tradisional dengan Tambak Intensif di Kabupaten Situbondo. Jurnal Ekonomi Pertanian Dan Agribisnis (JEPA), 2(4), 255–266. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.jepa.2018.002.0.1

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